Exploring Multiculturalism in Education

MQF Level: 6

ECTS Value: 3 ECTS

Self Study Hours: 24

Contact Hours: 15

Assessment Hours: 30


Overall Objectives and Outcomes

Schools and classroom environments are rapidly changing in Malta due to the effects of globalization, migratory pressures and inter-racial marriages. Schools in Malta have to rapidly adapt and meet the needs of a multicultural school environment. This entails reforms and adaptations. Heads of schools and teachers need to be empowered so as to address effectively and efficiently these new challenges. Teachers need to be trained how to address unprecedented, sensitive situations and require tools to address cultural and religious differences that might cause conflict in the classroom. Educators need to leave behind their preconceived ideas and learn to accept and help integrate students coming from different walks of life.

By the end of this programme, participants should be able to:


a. Confront own prejudices and pre-conceived ideas about different religions; Roman Catholic, Christian Orthodox, Judaism, Jewish Orthodox, and Islam (Sunni, Shia, Salafism/Wahhabism);

b. Understand and respect that some religions are closely intertwined with everyday life of the student;

c. Clearly convey the message to students that whatever their nationality, citizenship and democratic values are for everyone to respect;

d. Apply zero tolerance to discriminatory behaviour;

e. Take immediate action when racist, xenophobic and Islamophobic incidents occur in school, classrooms, or even on social media.


a. Distinguish between different cultures, religions and traditions;

b. Understand the importance of enforcing zero tolerance to any form of discrimination in schools and classroom;

c. Counter racism, xenophobia and Islamophobia effectively and promotes integration and acceptance.


a. Understand why racist, Islamophobic and xenophobic incidents need to be addressed on the spot and why zero tolerance to discrimination needs to be enforced;

b. Understand the difference between freedom of speech and when views are to be deemed extreme or radical;

c. Identify students that may be more vulnerable to radicalisation and takes action about it;

d. Employ critical thinking in the classroom;

e. Communicate effectively through the use of teaching methods the importance of acceptance, tolerance and enhancing integration of foreign students in the classroom;

f. Employ the right tools to convey the importance of citizenship, respect for democratic values and tolerance towards other communities.

Assessment Methods

This module will be assessed through: Practical Task(s)

Suggested Readings

Core Reading List
  1. Biesta, G. (2015). What is Education For? On Good Education, Teacher Judgment, and Educational Professionalism. European Journal of Education, 50(1).
  2. De Lissovoy, N. (2013). Pedagogy of the Impossible: neoliberalism and the ideology of accountability. Policy Futures in Education, 11(4).
  3. Gorard, S. (2010). Education Can Compensate for Society – a Bit. British Journal of Educational Studies, 58(1), p. 47-65.
  4. Leeman, Y. (2008). Education and Diversity in the Netherlands. European Educational Research Journal, 7(1)
  5. Paris, D., and Alim, H.S. (2017). Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies: Teaching and Learning for Justice in a Changing World. New York: Teacher’s College Press.
  6. Pels, T. & De Ruyter, D.J. (2012). The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research. Child Youth Care Forum, 41, p.311-325.
  7. Ragazzi, F. (2016). Suspect community or suspect category? The impact of counter-terrorism as ‘policed multiculturalism.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(5) 724-741. 
  8. Rich, S. & Troudi, S. (2006). Hard times: Arab TESOL students’ experiences of radicalization and othering in the United Kingdom. TESOL Quarterly, 40, p. 617.
  9. Santoro, N. and Forghani-Arani, N. (2015). Interrogating practice in culturally diverse classrooms: what can an analysis of student resistance and teacher response reveal? European Journal of Teacher Education, 38(1), p. 58-70. 
Supplementary Reading List
  1. Akbarzadeh, S. (2013), Investing in Mentoring and Educational Initiatives. The Limits of deradicalisation programmes in Australia. Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 33 (4), p. 451-463.
  2. Davies, L. (2008), Educating Against Extremism. Trentham Books Limited.
  3. European Commission (2014), Preventing Radicalisation to Terrorism and Violent Extremism: Strengthening the EU’s response.
  4. Fink, N.C., VeenKamp, I., Alhassen, W., Barakar, R., Zieger, S. (2013), The Role of Education in Countering Violent Extremism. Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation and Hedayah.
  1. Gereluk, D. (2012), Education, Extremism and Terrorism. What should be taught in citizenship education and why. Continuum International Publishing Group.
  2. Jamieson, A. & Flint, J. (2015). Radicalisation and Terrorism. A Teacher’s Handbook for Addressing Extremism. Brilliant Publications.
  3. Neuman, P.R. (2013), ‘The trouble with radicalisation’, International Affairs, 89(4), p. 873-893.
  4. Olivetti, V. (2001,2002), Terror’s Source. The ideology of Wahhabi-Salafism and its Consequences. Amadeus Books.
  5. Radicalisation Awareness Network. (2015), Preventing Radicalisation to Terrorism and Violent Extremism. A collection of approaches and practices.
  6. Richards, A. (2011), ‘The problem with ‘radicalization’: the remit of ‘Prevent’ and the need to refocus on terrorism in the UK.” International Affairs. 87:1 p.143-152.
  7. Tahir -ul- Qadri, M. (2015), “Islamic Curriculum on Peace and Counter-Terrorism,” Minhaj Publications.
  8. ‘Inventory of the best practices on de-radicalisation from different member states of the EU.
  9. The Change Institute. (2008), ‘Study on the best practices between authorities and civil society with a view to the prevention and response to violent radicalisation. A study commissioned by DG JLS of the European Commission.
  10. UK Department for Education. (2015), ‘The Prevent Duty. Departmental Advice for schools and childcare providers.” p. 1-11.
  11. UN Counter-Terrorism Task Force. (2006). ‘First report of the Working group on Radicalisation and Extremism that lead to Terrorism: Inventory of State Programmes.’ p. 1-22.
  12. Van Driel, B. (2004). Confronting Islamophobia in Educational Practice. Trentham Books.
  13. T & Notten, T. (2014), ‘On the radicalisation of Muslim youngsters in the Netherlands. Current research and some perspectives.’
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