Identifying Types of Enquiry in STEM

ECTS Value: 5 ECTS

Contact Hours: 25

Self Study Hours: 60

Assessment Hours: 40


Overall Objectives and Outcomes

This module is aimed at developing an understanding of the key elements of STEM Enquiry and how it might affect the practice of employees working within these fields. Course participants will be able to discuss types of scientific enquiry; ideas and evidence in STEM and how STEM professionals work. They will explore various approaches towards knowledge development including constructivist theories, Inquiry-based learning approaches, scientific methodologies and other problem-solving processes. 

By the end of this programme, participants should be able to:


a. Discuss different types of scientific enquiry and knowledge development; constructivist theory, inquiry-based learning (IBL), and the scientific method that dialogue ideas and evidence in STEM fields.
b. Develop critical thinking abilities to be able to act autonomously in evaluating the validity of facts and conclusions in terms of the quality and quantity of evidence obtained.
c. Pose significant questions that can be investigated empirically.


a. Identify how STEM professionals work in relation to the scientific method such as testing hypotheses by predicting outcomes and looking for evidence to either support their predictions or render the prediction invalid.
b. Analyse different pedagogical approaches and scientific methodologies to transform their own working practice towards effective engagement.
c. classify a variety of traditional and non-traditional forms of scientific enquiry and knowledge development, such as citizen science, constructivism, and IBL, and their pros and cons


a. Apply elements of STEM enquiry to how it might affect their practice working within the field.
b. Discriminate evidence from other information through comparison, based on the many historical and contemporary examples of how STEM professionals and educators work.
c. Link theory in their field and practice to research to be able to reflect, communicate and apply such theories into practice.


Assessment Methods

This programme adopts continuous and summative methods of assessment including assignments, online tasks, reflective journals, projects and video presentations. For further details, kindly refer to the Teaching, Learning and Assessment Policy and Procedures.

Suggested Readings

Core Reading List

1. National Research Council. 2002. Scientific Research in Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Online for free:
2. Rauschenbach, I., Keddis, R., & Davis, D. (2018). Poster Development and Presentation to Improve Scientific Inquiry and Broaden Effective Scientific Communication Skills. Journal of microbiology & biology education, 19(1), 19.1.19.
3. Jadrich, J. & Bruxvoort, C. (2011). Learning & Teaching Scientific Inquiry: Research and Applications. NSTA Press. Online for free:
4. McLeod, S. A. (2019, July 17). Constructivism as a theory for teaching and learning. Simply Psychology.
5. Pedaste, M., et al. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational Research Review, 14, 47-61. doi:

Supplementary Reading List

1. Citizen Science – Innovation in Open Science, Society and Policy. Edited by Susanne Hecker, Muki Haklay, Anne Bowser, Zen Makuch, Johannes Vogel, and Aletta Bonn and foreword by Carlos Moedas, Commisioner (2015-19) Research, Science and Innovation, European Commission. Online for free:
2. Robert Klee (1999) Scientific Inquiry: Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press.
3. L.B. FLick & N.G. Lederman (2006) Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science. Implications for Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education. Springer.
4. Fox, R. (2001). Constructivism examined. Oxford review of education, 27(1), 23-35. Brooks, J., & Brooks, M. (1993). In search of understanding: the case for constructivist classrooms, ASCD. NDT Resource Center database

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