Promoting the Principles of Inclusion through Classroom Practices

MQF Level: 6

ECTS Value: 2 ECTS

Self Study Hours: 25

Contact Hours: 10

Assessment Hours: 15


Overall Objectives and Outcomes

Malta has one of the highest rates of learners with additional support needs who attend mainstream education settings among the European Union (EU) Member States. (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, 2014) Indeed, the rate of learners who receive their education in segregated placements in Malta is just over 0.1%. This proportion is one of the lowest within the countries of the EU.

Provided that mainstream educational settings in Malta are currently experiencing an increase in the number of learners with individual educational needs, it is crucial that aspiring and/or current educators are well prepared to meet the diverse needs of their students. This is essential as research has increasingly demonstrated that a ‘one fit all’ system is unlikely to provide an effective schooling experience to learners. Thus, in order to cater for the various needs and learning styles of the children under their care, it is fundamental that educators put in place the principles of inclusion through classroom practices as this is key to a fruitful and effective learning experience for all. A theoretical model which will be referred to as a lens to inform inclusive classroom practices throughout this module is Mitchell’s (2014) formula of inclusion where:

V + P + 5As + S + R + L = Inclusive Education.

 V = Vision; P = Placement; 5As = Adapted Curriculum, Adapted Assessment, Adapted Teaching, Acceptance, Access; S = Support; R = Resources; L = Leadership.

By the end of this programme, participants should be able to:


a. Make applicable decisions which are coherent with the national and international policies available in the field of Inclusive Education when determining support for the students under their care;

b. Demonstrate awareness in relation to the definition and attitudes surrounding inclusion in schools hence acknowledging the difference between a ‘one fit all’ approach and an ‘all inclusive’ pedagogy;

c. Take on responsibilities in order to create an inclusive classroom environment which will benefit all through the application of

d. Classroom instruction which is less restrictive so as to meet

e. The needs of all learners.


a. Define the views and establish a position in relation to the perspectives that surround the concept of inclusive education;

b. Systematically understand and critically evaluate the contents within the national and international policies vis-à-vis to current issues in the field of Inclusive Education;

c. Manage, extend and apply the elements of Mitchell’s (2014) formula of Inclusion within educational practice;

d. Initiate and develop appropriate classroom practice based on the principles of the Universal Design for Learning.


a. Develop his own autonomous beliefs in relation to the perspectives of inclusion;

b. Report upon and implement aspects of the several policies which are currently in place in the field of inclusive education throughout their daily practice;

c. Apply several elements of Mitchell’s (2014) formula within classroom instruction so as to enhance the learning potential of all the students under their care;

d. Engage in reflective thinking so as to develop and design meaningful and inclusive learning experiences for all the learners in the classroom.

Assessment Methods

This module will be assessed through: Forum Discussions, Reflective Report.

Suggested Readings

Core Reading List
  1. CAST (2011). Universal design for learning guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA: Author. Available:
  2. European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education (2014). Education for All: Special Needs and Inclusive Education in Malta, External Audit Report. Denmark: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education.
  3. Ministry for Education and Employment. (2014). Respect for All Framework. Malta: MEDE
  4. Ministry of Education (2000), Inclusive Education Policy Regarding Students with a Disability. Malta: Salesian Press.
  5. Ministry of Education (2002), Creating Inclusive Schools Policy. Malta: Salesian Press.
  6. Ministry of Education and Employment (2012) A National Curriculum Framework for All. Malta: Salesian Press
  7. Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth and Sport (2009). Special Schools Reform. Malta: Student Services Department
  8. Mitchell, D. (2014) What Really Works in Special and Inclusive Education. Using Evidence-based Teaching Strategies (2nd ed.). Oxon: Routledge
  9. UNESCO, (1994). The Salamanca Statement & Framework on Action on Special Needs Education. UNESCO: Spain
  10. United Nations (2006) United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). New York: United Nations
Supplementary Reading List
  1. Ainscow, M. & Booth, T. (2011) Index for Inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.
  2. Gargiulo, R. & Metcalf, D. (2012) Teaching in Today’s Inclusive Classrooms: A Universal Design for Learning Approach. Belmont: Cengage.
  3. Mittler, P. (2012) Working Towards Inclusive Education: Social Contexts. Oxon: David Fulton Publishers.
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