Adolescents with Divergent Behaviour and the Community

MQF Level: 7

ECTS Value: 5 ECTS

Self Study Hours: 60

Contact Hours: 325

Assessment Hours: 40

Duration: 10 sessions


Overall Objectives and Outcomes

The module aims to provide course participants with a comprehensive understanding of the complex relationship between adolescents with divergent behaviours and their connection with the community.  This will be achieved by exploring various topics, including restorative justice, shame and guilt associated with young people, community sanctions and recidivism, youth justice, and reintegration in to the community together with related programmes and services available for young people within the community. Participants will critically examine the multifaceted challenges faced by troubled youth and explore effective strategies to foster positive community connections, rehabilitate, and reintegrate them into society.

By the end of this programme, participants should be able to:


a. Foster an understanding about adolescents coming from divergent behaviours (including psychology of adolescents, understanding divergent behaviours and linking the two);

b. Assist Adolescents in the community (understanding adolescents role within society);

c. Foster knowledge with regards to Adolescents and deviance (understanding the correlation between adolescents and criminal behaviours);

d. Implement an understanding of community structures that assist the rehabilitation and reintegration of adolescents.


a. Define concepts such as restorative justice, guilt, shame recidivism, youth justice and reintegration in relation to adolescents exhibiting divergent behaviours;

b. Link theories related to psychology of adolescents to situations occurring in an educational setting as well as within other aspects of their community;

c. Discuss concepts related to youths and their role within the community;

d. Demonstrate understanding of the principles of youth justice and criminology related to deviant behaviours.


a. Evaluate specific concepts related to youths facilitate their integration in the community;

b. Evaluate and assess existing services for youths who offend to offer them a greater chance of successful reintegration and avoid recidivism;

c. Demonstrate the ability to carry out educational outreach for the public regarding the positive influence youths have in the community when appropriate measures are put into practice example youth groups, safe outdoor spaces, community policing presence.

d. Practice empathy when interacting with youths coming from divergent backgrounds in any setting;

e. Motivate the community at large to understand reasons behind the presenting behaviours in youths.

Assessment Methods

This module will be assessed through: Case Study, plan of action and individual presentation. Critical write-up.

Suggested Readings

Core Reading List
  1. Bender, K., & Jenson, J. (2013). Preventing Child and Adolescent Problem Behaviour: Evidence-Based Strategies in Schools, Families, and Communities (Evidence-Based Practices). UK: Oxford University Press.
  2. Blood, P., & Thorsborne, M. (2013). Implementing Restorative Practices in Schools – A Practical Guide to Transforming School Communities. UK: Jessica Kingsly Publishers.
  3. Hopkins, B. (2016). Restorative Theory in Practice – Insights into what Works and Why. UK: Jessica Kingsly Publishers.
  4. Lerner, R., & Steinberg, L. (2009). Handbook of adolescent Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  5. Kilkelly, U., Forde, L., Lambert, S., & Swirak, K. (2023). Children in Conflict with the Law: Rights, Research and Progressive Youth Justice (Palgrave Critical Studies in Human Rights and Criminology). Palgrave Macmillan.
  6. Johnson, M. E. (2021). The Little Book of Police Youth Dialogue: A Restorative Path Toward Justice (Justice and Peacebuilding) (English Edition) Good Books.
  7. Johnson, S. D. (2022). HowExpert Guide to Mentoring Juvenile Youth: 101 Tips to Learn How to Build Trust with Your At-Risk Mentee, Find Their Purpose and Passions, and Guide Them to a Better Future (English Edition). Hot Methods.
  8. Ross,E,J. (2023). Making Sense of Youth Crime: A Comparison of Police Intelligence in the United States and France. UK: Cambridge
  9. Smith, R. (2019). Diversion in Youth Justice: What Can We Learn from Historical and Contemporary Practices? (Routledge Frontiers of Criminal Justice) (Illustrated ed.). Routledge.
  10. Wallis, P. (2014). Understanding Restorative Justice – How Empathy can Close the Gap Created by Crime. UK: Sage Publications.
  11. Wilmshurst, L. (2021). Child and Adolescent Psychopathology – A Casebook. UK: Sage Publications.
Supplementary Reading List
  1. Fresh Essays. (July 2022). Influence of Community on Deviant Behaviors. Retrieved from
  2. Hughes, G., McLaughlin, E. & Muncie, J. (2006). Crime Prevention and Community Safety – New Directions. UK: Sage Publications.
  3. McCarthy, R,L. (2023), Juvenile Justice: A Pathway to Reintegration,
  4. Newburn, T. (2011). Handbook of Policing. UK: Taylor and Francis.
  5. Nkhata, J, M, Mawale,M. (2016)
  6. Ponomareva ,E, Beresnev, A ,  Rudakova, O, A. (2021), https://www.Prevention of adolescents’ deviant behaviour
  7. Problems Related to Reintegration of Young Ex-Offenders in Estonia (A. . Markina , Trans.). (2019). Kriminologijos Studijos7, 56-74.
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