Reflection on Learning: The Learning to learn competence

MQF Level: 7

ECTS Value: 3 ECTS

Self Study Hours: 36

Contact Hours: 15

Assessment Hours: 24


Overall Objectives and Outcomes

This module challenges the too often conventional and restrictive practices in the classroom where rote learning and passive learners are emphasised at the price of meaningful learning and active learners who commit themselves to think, act and learn critically. Educational research is nowadays focusing on meta-learning (learning about learning) which revolves around making sense of one’s own experience of learning. In this way the learners will be equipped with a life-long learning skill. Therefore, this module will present an understanding of how children learn, through a deep understanding of theories of learning and how these may be applied to the classroom to better address learners’ variability.

By the end of this programme, participants should be able to:


a. Create lesson plans based on knowledge of the learning-to-learn concept;

b. Perform a variety of strategies to address learner variability;

c. Respond to learners’ learning preferences;

d. Advise learners through appropriate feedback on how they can improve.


a. Appreciate a comprehensive knowledge base of how children learn;

b. Criticise learning founded on prevalent theories of learning;

d. Apply knowledge of learning to understand learner variability;

e. Distinguish between different mental processes during learning such as cognition, conation and affectation;

f. Demonstrate a rich conception of metacognition and metalearning.


a. Evaluate one’s own learning;

b. Perform an analysis of learners’ learning preferences;

c. Develop planning in response to emerging knowledge and pedagogies;

d. Illustrate strategies that engage different learners.

Assessment Methods

This module will be assessed through: Reflective Tasks and Assignment.

Suggested Readings

Core Reading List
  1. Biggs, J. (1985) The Role of Metalearning in Study Process. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55 pp. 185-212
  2. Booth, C. (2011) Reflective Teaching Effective Learning: Instructional Literacy for Library Educators. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
  3. Brockbank, A. & McGill, I. (2011) Facilitation and the affective domain. In M. Pedler (ed) Action Learning in Practice (4th Edition) Surrey: Gower Publishing pp. 261-272.
  4. Bruer, J.T. (1997) Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far. Educational Researcher 26 (8) pp .4-16.
  5. Colliver, J.A. (2000) Constructivism: the view of knowledge that ended philosophy or a theory of learning and instruction? Teaching and Learning in Medicine 14 (1) pp. 49-51.
  6. Curry, L. (1990) A critique of the research on learning styles. Educational Leadership, 48 (2) pp.50-56.
  7. Debello, T.C. (1990) Comparison of Eleven Major Learning Styles Models: variables, appropriate populations, validity of instrumentation and the research behind them. Journal of Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities (6) pp. 203-222
  8. Dweck, C.S. (2017) Mindset – Updated Edition – How You Can Fulfil Your Potential. London: Robinson.
  9. Forsten, C., Goodman, G. & Grant, J. (2006) The more ways you TEACH the more students you REACH: 86 strategies for differentiating instruction. Peterborough, NH: Crystal Springs Books.
  10. Gordon, M. (2009) Toward a pragmatic discourse of constructivism: reflections on lessons from practice. Educational Studies 45 pp. 39-58.
  11. Hartman, H.J. (2013) (ed) Metacognition in Learning and Instruction: Theory, Research and Practice. Springer Science.
  12. Hattie, J. (2012) Visible Learning for Teachers. Maximizing impact on learning. Oxon: Routledge.
  13. Jarvis, P. (2006) (ed) The Theory and Practice of Teaching (2nd Edition). Oxon: Routledge.
  14. Lafferty, H. & Burley, K. (2009) Do Learning Styles Exist? Available online
  15. Larkin, S. (2010) Metacognition in Young Children. Oxon: Routledge.
  16. Watkins, C. (2001) Learning about learning enhances performance. Research Matters (13) Spring pp. 1-9.
  17. Weimer, M. (2002) Learner-centred teaching: Five key changes to practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Supplementary Reading List
  1. Biggs, J. (1987) Student Approaches to Learning and Studying. Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
  2. Brookefield, S.D. (2017) Becoming a critically reflective teacher. (2nd edition). San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.
  3. Bruer, J.T. (1997) Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far. Educational Researcher 26 (8) pp .4-16.
  4. Bruer, J.T. (1993) Schools for Thought. A Science of Learning in the Classroom. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  5. Bruer, J.T. (1999) The Myth of the First Three Years. A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. New York, NY: The Free Press.
  6. Dawkins, B.U., Kottkamp, R.B., Johnston, C.A. (2010) Intentional Teaching: The Let Me Learn® classroom in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  7. Dweck, C.S. & Masters, A. (2008) Self-Theories Motivate Self-Regulated Learning. In D.H. Schunk & B.J. Zimmerman (eds) Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory Research and Applications (pp, 31-51) New York, NY: Erlbaum.
  8. Gamache, P. (2002) University Students as Creators of Personal Knowledge: an alternative epistemological view. Teaching in Higher Education 7 (3) pp. 277-294.
  9. Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers make a difference: What is the research Evidence? Paper presented at the Australian Council for Educational Research Annual Conference on Building Teacher Quality, Melbourne.
  10. Hattie, J. & Anderman, E.M. (2013) International Guide to Student Achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.
  11. Johnston, C.A. (2010) Finding your way: Navigating life by understanding your learning self. Glassboro, NJ: Let Me Learn, Inc.
  12. Land, R. (2004) Educational Development: Discourse, Identity and Practice. Berkshire: Open University Press.
  13. Meyer, J.H.F. & Land, R. (2006) (eds) Overcoming Barriers to Student Understanding. Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge. Oxon: Routledge.
  14. Pritchard, A. (2013) (3rd Edition) Ways of Learning: Learning Theories and Learning Styles in the Classroom. Oxon: Routledge.
  15. Schön, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Hants: Basic Books.
  16. Sharp, J.G., Bowker, R., Byrne, J. (2008) The Trouble with VAK. Educational Futures Vol. 1 (1) pp.89-97.
  17. Sharp, J.G., Bowker, R., Byrne, J. (2008) VAK or VAK-uous? Towards the trivialisation of learning and the death of scholarship. Research Papers in Education Vol. 23 93) pp. 293-314.
  18. Stahl, S.A. (1999) Different Strokes for Different Folks? A Critique of Learning Styles. American Educator pp. 1-5.
  19. Vanhear, J. (2015). Chapter 24: Vee Heuristics, Concept Mapping And Learning Patterns: Merging Metacognitive Tools and Learning Processes to Improve Facilitation of Learning with Primary Children in Calleja, C. & Johnston, C.A. (Eds.)(2015) A Learning Paradigm Informed by the Learning Self: A Compendium of Applied Research in the Let Me Learn Process. pp. 491- 506. Horizon and Forum on Learning Publication. Malta.
  20. Vanhear, J. (2013) The use of Concept Mapping and Vee Heuristics in Higher Education to promote critical reflection and meaningful learning. Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers (JETT).
  21. Vanhear, J. & Pace, P. (2008) Integrating knowledge, feelings and action: using Vee heuristics and concept mapping in education for sustainable development. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability. Vol 10-2008 (pp.42-55)
  22. Vanhear, J. & Reid, A. (2014) Concept Mapping and Universal Design for Learning: Addressing Learner Variability. Paper presented at the Sixth International Concept Mapping Conference in Brazil.
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